Monday, July 27, 2015

SRAP ends with a bang with the 2015 Symposium!


Last week, the 2015 Summer Research Apprentice Program (SRAP) Symposium was held at the Hilton Garden Inn in Laramie, Wyoming.  Twenty-two high school students participated in the annual program, coming from Wyoming and other states across the country.   Students worked on research projects for six weeks in University of Wyoming faculty research labs, and concluded the program by presenting their research at the Symposium on Friday, July 24th.

Austin Davilla, Buda, Texas 
Giavanna Lorez from California studied with faculty mentor, Dr. Karlee R. Provenza, in the Psychology Department.  Lorez studied racial bias decisions made by law enforcement officers when using lethal force.  Although her research project is still in progress, based on other research completed, she was able to determine that law enforcement officers have a bias in shooting subjects in relation to their race, specifically African Americans.  With news and videos surfacing about police use of lethal force on suspects, this is a topic relevant to current events. 

Tucker Bower from Casper, Wyoming presented on how the enzyme Cathepsin K might contribute to inflammatory pain in mice. Similar to this, Austin Davilla from Texas studied the effects of minimizing Cathepsin K to see if it protects people against cardiac dysfunction caused by alcohol.  Like these studies related to human health, Franklin, Wisconsin student, Kimberly Mackiel, studied how a high-fat diet might affect a person’s food cravings with Drs. Paige Dingess, Rebecca A. Darling, and Travis E. Brown from Neuroscience.  

Kimberley Mackiel, Franklin, Wisconsin 
 Drs. Katie Li and Jiashi Yin from Chemical and Petroleum Engineering mentored Shawn Murray who studied how to improve produced water from energy extraction with the modification of polyvinylidene fluoride ultrafiltration membranes by coating dopamine and titanium dioxide.   This research can be important for Wyoming and other states in the country that have energy production and want to reduce the environmental impacts.

Each of the twenty-two students created a poster board with their research results and gave a presentation.  All of the students did a great job presenting their projects and were very knowledgeable about the results concluded from their research by answering questions and talking to visitors.  Every student was appreciative of EPSCoR, especially Lisa Abeyta, and all of their mentors for the help they received.  Thank you to all the students who participated and made SRAP 2015 such a success!


If you would like to learn more about SRAP and all EPSCoR programs, go to www.uwyo.edu/epscor

By: Chelsea Parsons 

Thursday, July 2, 2015

CI-WATER Researcher discovers groundwater modeling breakthrough

Dr. Fred Ogden's groundbreaking research is leading the way to better understanding how water moves through our environment. How did he do it? With an equation and using a computer model. 

Read more from the University of Wyoming news service:

Researcher discovers groundwater modeling breakthrough UW professor's discovery was 84 years in the making 

PUBLIC RELEASE: 1-JUL-2015 
UNIVERSITY OF WYOMING

A University of Wyoming professor has made a discovery that answers a nearly 100-year-old question about water movement, with implications for agriculture, hydrology, climate science and other fields.

Credit: University of Wyoming
After decades of effort, Fred Ogden, UW's Cline Chair of Engineering, Environment and Natural Resources in the Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering and Haub School of Environment and Natural Resources, and a team of collaborators published their findings in the journal Water Resources Research this spring. The paper, titled "A new general 1-D vadose zone flow solution method," presents an equation to replace a difficult and unreliable formula that's stymied hydrologic modelers since 1931.

 "I honestly never thought I would be involved in a discovery in my field," Ogden says.

He anticipates this finding will greatly improve the reliability and functionality for hundreds of important water models used by everyone from irrigators and city planners to climate scientists and botanists around the country and the world, as well as trigger a new surge in data collection.

In 1931, Lorenzo Richards developed a beautiful, if numerically complex, equation to calculate how much water makes it into soil over time as rainfall hits the ground surface and filters down toward the water table. That equation, known as the Richards equation and often shortened to RE, has been the only rigorous way to calculate the movement of water in the vadose zone -- that is, the unsaturated soil between the water table and the ground surface where most plant roots grow.

Calculating the movement of water in the vadose zone is critical to everything from estimating return flows and aquifer recharge to better managing irrigation and predicting floods. But RE is extremely difficult to solve, and occasionally unsolvable. So, while some high-powered computer models can handle it over small geographic areas, simpler models or those covering large regions must use approximations that compromise accuracy.

For decades, hydrologists and other scientists have pursued a better way to estimate vadose zone water. Cornell University Environment and Ecology Professor Jean-Yves Parlange and Australian soil physicist John Robert Philip battled one another in the literature, proposing new equations and disproving each other -- from the 1950s until Philip's untimely death in a traffic accident in 1999. Princeton Environmental Engineering and Water Resources Director Michael Celia published a partial solution in 1990 that is not reliable in all circumstances.

Ogden first worked on the problem in 1994 as a postdoctoral researcher. He teamed with Iranian hydrology engineer Bahram Saghafian, who was finishing a Ph.D. at Colorado State University, to publish an equation that estimates water "suction" in the vadose zone. In the early 2000s, Ogden advised a Ph.D. candidate named Cary Talbot, a researcher with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, on a project seeking a solution to the RE. The two developed a new way to represent vadose zone water.

In more recent years, the search continued, and a major National Science Foundation research grant in 2011 enabled Ogden to bring additional experts to the quest and use UW's supercomputing power to test prospective solutions.

Then, late last fall, just before the large American Geophysical Union annual meeting, Ogden and his research team discovered a novel solution, an elegant new equation that he thought would equal the RE in accuracy while greatly reducing the computing power needed to run it. He tested this solution with precipitation data from his field site in Panama.

"We ran eight months of Panama data with 263 centimeters of rain through our equation and Hydrus," Ogden says.

Hydrus is an existing supercomputer model that uses RE. The results his model generated had only 7 millimeters, or two tenths of 1 percent, difference from the results of the Hydrus model that employs Celia's solution of the RE.

"They were almost identical. That's when I knew," he says. "I felt like the guy who discovered the gold nugget in the American River in California."

What's next for the new equation? First, it is the centerpiece of Ogden's ADHydro model, a massive, supercomputer-powered model that's first simulating the water supply effects of different climate and management scenarios throughout the entire upper Colorado River Basin. From there, Ogden hopes other models will incorporate it, too.

Find original post here:  http://www.uwyo.edu/uw/news/2015/07/uw-researcher-discovers-groundwater-modeling-breakthrough-84-years-in-the-making.html

Friday, June 5, 2015

Eco-Hydro-Geophysics through WyCEHG Training



WyCEHG hosted a summer field course from May 17-30, 2015.  This summer marked the program’s third year, its second at UW, and brought in students from historic black colleges and universities around the country to join our UW students.  Students learned about the water cycle through the combined disciplines of ecology, hydrology, and geophysics.  The two-week intensive seminar is designed to bring these concepts together and answer questions about water in interdisciplinary ways.  Above all, the course is meant to be hands-on: students used cutting-edge equipment in action, and heard lectures about mountain hydrology. 

Blair Wallace, near Vedauwoo in the Medicine Bow National Forest, was the program’s primary site.  I had the chance to accompany the students on a field trip to WyCEHG’s No Name Watershed site, where they took a tour of the high-altitude area, making stops along the way to see at the instrumentation WyCEHG uses to explore water flow in the area.    

Top: Students in WyCEHG's Field Course in the Snowy Range; Bottom Left: Students setting up a weather station at Blair-Wallis; Bottom Left: Up in the No Name Watershed looking at equipment. Photo Credit: Liz Nysson
We arrived at the No Name Watershed at mid-morning.  After strapping snowshoes to our feet, we waddled across the parking lot to the trailhead.  The day was bright and the air felt warm and fresh.  

Signs of recent WyCEHG activity were plentiful.  We saw water stations measuring wind speed, humidity, precipitation amounts, and temperature; water gauges in streambeds; specialized equipment testing the amount of sap in trees; and cameras helping to create a photographic record of snowfall from its first arrival on the mountaintop. 

Although our snowshoes came in handy, sunlit parts of the trail were slushy, and rich brown mud showed through in many places.  Snow melts bottom-up instead of top-down, as the ground thaws and the slow current of snowmelt starts to trickle downward towards valleys and rivers.  The terrain was already saturated, and cold water welled up under our feet as we made our way down the trail.  We saw bear tracks in the snow by a slow-running stream, winding back and forth over the open water. 

Beetle kill was everywhere, both in the rough yellow sap that ran down boreholes like tallow from a candle and in the dead trees crowding the living evergreens.  In many sections of the forest, most of the trees had been killed.  Single-species groves were hardest hit, while diverse stands of trees were less likely to suffer total devastation.  Second-growth was evident in many places. 

The last stop on our hike was a fen, an area where vegetation had condensed over centuries and millennia into a dense tangle of spongy undergrowth.  The role fens play in the mountain ecosystem is still being explored.  Their specialized environment may also be an especially delicate habitat for micro-organisms and flora, so the fens near No Name are protected by the Forest Service.  WyCEHG scientists are interested in the possibility of using fenland water and soil measurements to gather information about the ecological history of the mountainside.  

By the time we reached the parking lot, the sky had clouded over and a flurry of snow had begun to fall.   

WyCEHG’s EcoHydroGeophysics field course is just one way the center encourages a water resource workforce in Wyoming. To Learn more, go to www.uwyo.edu/wycehg

By Jess White